Beyond Everyday Conversation
by: David Kehe and Peggy Dustin Kehe
Level: High intermediate to advanced, Secondary to Adult
Illustrations by: Andrew Toos
Discussion Strategies Introduction
Unit 21 Driving- Facts vs Opinions
영어로 토론할 때 쓰는 화술의 전략을 가르치는 책이다.
저자 David Kehe와 Peggy Dustin Kehe가 쓴 고급 영어 학습서로서 1994년에 그들이 썼던 Conversation Strategies의 발전편이요 후속편이다. 대학생들의 고급 영어 회화 즉 학문적 내용의 토론에 쓰이는 전략을 가르치므로 Internet-based TOEFL 시험 특히 그 Speaking Section을 준비하는 분들에게는 전가의 보도가 될 수도 있다.
Conversation Strategies도 일반 영어 회화 참고서의 수준을 약간 웃도는 대화 전략을 쓴 책으로 이런 책이 나온 것은 Pro Lingua Associates라는 영어 교수법에 관한 전문 교재 출판사가 출현한 덕택이다. Conversation Strategies는 출판되자마자 미국 TESOL 학회에서 대호평을 받아 계속 증쇄를 거듭했었으며 미국 도서관협회에서 교육부문의 양서에 주는 최고 영예의 대상인 Special Merit Award: Education 상을 받았다.
이 두 교재는 우리나라에서도 여러 대학교에서 고급반 영어의 교재로 외국인 교수들이 많이 쓰고 있다. 일반에게는 잘 알려지지 않았으나 이 책은 교사의 도움 없이도 충분히 공부할 수 있게 꾸며져 있고, 가격도 Pro Lingua Associates의 허가를 받아 (주)외국어연수사에서 reprint 하여 염가판으로 판매되고 있다. 영어로만 된 책이기 때문에 외국어원서부에 들어 있는 경우가 많고 책이 reprint인 까닭에 전적으로 영어로만 되어 있어 쉽게 식별하기 어려우나 중급 수준 정도의 영어 실력만 있으면 혼자서 고급 영어 회화와 토론 전략을 익힐 수 있는 학습서이다.
- Students enjoy developing skills needed at high academic and business levels
- Work in real discussion formats: pairs, triads, small groups, large groups, whole class
- Discussion topics are high-interest; no in depth background knowledge is needed.
- Each unit builds on and recycles previous strategies.
- Clear step-by-step, focused practice of 13 discussion skills: using rejoinders, asking follow-up questions, seeking/giving clarification, using comprehension checks, soliciting and using details, interrupting, expressing opinions, volunteering answers, referring to information and opinion sources, helping discussion leaders, and leading a discussion.
Authors: David Kehe and Peggy Dustin Kehe
Publisher: Pro lingua Associates
Book review published in the Canadian Modern Language Review/La Revue canadienne des langues vivantes
Reviewed by: Viviane Edwards
Discussion Strategies was written by David and Peggy Kehe, the authors of Conversation Strategies and follows and builds upon the conversation skills discussed in that text. Discussion Strategies, however, stands on its own and may easily be used for the development of discussion skills.The activities in this book are designed to help high-intermediate to advanced English second language students develop the skills needed at high levels of communicative interaction. From the outset, students in a step-by-step procedure are given extensive practice in a variety of discussion strategies for leading and participating in a discussion. They are provided with focused practice with a variety of discussion techniques. These include using rejoiners, asking follow-up questions, seeking and giving clarification, using comprehension checks, answering with details, soliciting more details from others, interrupting others during a discussion, recounting something they have heard, volunteering an answer, helping the leader of a discussion, expressing an opinion, referring to a source when giving an opinion, and leading a discussion themselves.
Unlike Conversation Strategies, each unit in this text builds upon and recycles the strategies practiced in the previous one. Teachers using this text would be wise to proceed unit-by unit in the given sequence. The general progression of interaction formats goes from participating in pair work to leading large group discussions. By the final units students are using all the strategies learned in large group or whole-class situations.
In many of the units, newspaper articles based on true stories are used as the basis of discussion. The articles have been chosen for their high-interest contents and do not require any background knowledge by the students. An added bonus is that students from a variety of cultures are able to relate to the selected topics.
The review below appeared in the Nov/Dec 1998 issue of ESL Magazine.
Reviewed by: Virginia D Lezhnev, Ph.D.
I wanted to speak up in class, but I just couldn't."
Either the class discussion went too fast, the student was shy, or the student didn't understand what was said. How many times have we heard remarks like this from our students? Like-wise, how many times have we asked, "How can I get my students to participate more in class discussions?" Help is on the way.
The latest book by David Kehe and Peggy Dustin Kehe, published this year by Pro Lingua Associates, offers step-by-step, interactive solutions to problems of discussion freeze-up. At first glance, the book looks confusing because the content seems jumbled. For example, Student A uses pages 1-66; student B, pages 67-131; student C, pages 133-190. But, in fact, the book is very user-friendly and cleverly arranged in a series of information/discussion gap tasks in which the students learn and practice various discussion strategies. As the students perform these tasks, they learn how to participate in the natural give-and-lake of discussion and how to fill in those gaps when they think that they have nothing say.
In Units 1-27, the tasks are done in pairs or triads. This allows students to practice their discussion strategies within the security of small groups. The roles within the small groups are assigned in the task. For example in Unit 10, A reads the first part of the article; B and C interrupt and ask clarification questions; A clarifies. B reads the second part of the article, and A and C interrupt and so on.
Unit 28 is a summary discussion of all the strategies. Unit 29 is a model, teacher-led discussion. In the final units 30-38, the students lead small group discussions for 40-minute periods.
In most of the units, the discussion centers on an article of general interest such as "Telling Lies" or "Stress." Structured activities guide the use of strategies, and open-ended activities, such as reacting to your partner's opinions, allow the students to express themselves more freely.
A large number of discussion strategies (as summarized in Unit 28) are introduced, practiced and recycled: rejoinders, follow-up questions, clarification expressions, comprehension checks, answering with details, interrupting, words that describe, telling what you've heard, volunteering an answer, summary clarification, telling others' opinions, helping the leader, expressing opinions and referring to a source.
Discussion Strategies is an excellent text for a high-intermediate to advanced communication skills course for ESL/EFL learners interested in practicing and perfecting their discussion skills for either academic or professional purposes. Students gain confidence from small group discussions and progress toward leading large group discussions. The book provides support to help students feel comfortable in performing various discussion tasks. This is a worthy sequel to Kehe and Kehe's
A very successful text for intermediate students.
Offers a solution to discussion freeze-up and opens the channels of communication.
Virginia D Lezhnev, Ph.D., teaches in the Intensive English Language Program, and and teaches Methodology of Language Teaching to Japanese teachers of English at Georgetown University where she is Senior CLED (Center for Language Education and Development) instructor.
Books by David Kehe & Peggy Dustin Kehe